The Behavioural Biology of Dogs: (Cabi Publishing) by Per Jensen

By Per Jensen

Written through specialists in numerous parts, this e-book offers an updated account of the behavioural biology of canines. cut up in three components, the publication addresses the categorical elements of behavioural biology. the 1st half bargains with the evolution and improvement of the puppy, while the subsequent half bargains with uncomplicated points of puppy behaviour. the ultimate half emphasises at the behavioural difficulties, their prevention and treatment.

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3). For clade A it is notable that East Asian mtDNA types were distributed throughout the network, while for Europe and Southwest Asia, parts of the network, largely the same in the two populations, were empty. To conclude, in a comparison of the dog populations of East Asia, Europe and Southwest Asia, there is a much higher genetic variation in East Asia for the two major dog mtDNA-clades, clades A and B, which comprise >90% of all domestic dog mtDNA sequences. This suggests an origin somewhere in East Asia for the mtDNA types of clades A and B, and a subsequent spread of only a subset of these mtDNA types to the rest of the world.

The total sum of circumstantial mtDNA evidence therefore indicates a single origin, in both place and time, for the three clades, approximately 15,000 years ago. Furthermore, in the absence of a clear result from the mtDNA data, the best evidence for the time of the first origin of the domestic dog remains the archaeological record, which indicates an origin approximately 15,000 years ago. A synthesis of mtDNA data: the similar proportions of clades A, B and C, and the larger genetic variation for clades A and B; and archaeological data: the oldest evidence of domestic dog dated at approximately 15,000 years ago, therefore point to an origin of the domestic dog in East Asia ~15,000 BP.

Hence nucleotide changes are markers of common ancestry, and if they accumulate in a regular fashion with time, may be used to estimate divergence time and time of origin. As an example, consider hypothetical sequence changes in the DNA sequence responsible for the synthesis of haemoglobin, the protein responsible for binding oxygen in red blood cells. Suppose all coyotes (Canis latrans), grey wolves and dogs shared 90 nucleotides in a fragment of 100 in the haemoglobin gene, whereas the grey wolf and dog shared, in addition, eight more nucleotides.

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