By Majid Fakhry
This e-book offers a complete review of the lifestyles, instances, and achievements of Averroes, a twelfth-century Muslim thinker whose principles have been so arguable that his books have been burnt no longer as soon as, yet two times. a desirable creation that covers all of the key matters and underlines the significance of Islamic philosophy as an essential element in modern Western tradition.
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Additional resources for Averroes: His Life, Works, and Influence (Great Islamic Writings)
In the first place, Averroes is particularly scathing in his attack on the Ash'arite theologians who, in their obsession with the notion of God's absolute omnipotence, have reduced the created order to total impotence or passivity. Every occurrence in the universe, according to them, is the product of God's direct and miraculous intervention, and thus created entities, whether animate or inanimate, are incapable of any initiative, since they are devoid of any active powers of any kind. In the second place, Averroes accuses the Muslim Neoplatonists targeted by al-Ghaz~li,including al-Firibi and Avicenna, as we have seen in the previous chapter, of having misunderstood or distorted the teaching of Aristotle.
43. the Qur'an thoroughly, we will not find a single text asserting that God first existed with pure not-being ('adam), then H e existed with the world which did not exist before. Accordingly, the claim of the Mutakallimun that the creation of the world in time is explicitly stated in the Qur'an, or has been consecrated by the consensus (tjm6) of the community, is entirely gratuitous. Contrariwise, they are, like the philosophers, adepts of interpretation, which is an obligation incumbent on the learned, who even if they are in error, are deserving of pardon.
1707 f. , reduced God's knowledge exclusively to self-knowledge,. arguing that H e can only think "of what is most divine and precious," i. e. Himself. " Aristotle's commentators have, therefore, struggled valiantly with the question of God's knowledge, in an attempt to circumvent the obvious objections to this narcissistic mode of divine knowledge, which is clearly inadequate. As Sir W. D. Ross (d. "'~ first leading Aristotelian to come up with this original interpretation; namely, that in knowing Himself as the cause of the universe, God knows at the same time the totality of effects which flow from Him as their cause.